Always ask your professor if the sources you’ve chosen are appropriate, and if s/he has any special instructions or requirements for citation.
If an idea wasn't yours, you should cite it in-text. This includes:
- Direct quotations
- Paraphrasing (putting someone else's ideas into your own words)
- Using an idea that someone else gave you in a conversation, email, class, etc.
- Describing an idea that influenced your work
- Expert opinion or lending authority to your own opinion
- Giving any information that isn't common knowledge
*Please see the Parenthetical (In-text) Citations section of this guide for more information about in-text citing.
Paraphrasing is taking someone else's idea or statement and putting it into your own words. It is still considered plagiarism if you paraphrase without an in-text citation.
Montoya greets, informs his foe of the reason for his anger, and immediately issues a threat (Lear & Reiner, 1987).
*note that Lear and Reiner are the producer and director of the film The Princess Bride.
The Princess Bride - Hello my name is Inigo Montoya Face T-shirt [image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.meta-cortex.com/the-princess-bride-inigo-montoya-t-shirt
APA, being used for sciences mostly, is very interested in the currency of your sources. This is why they ask for the date to be given in text along with the last name(s) of the author(s).
If you are quoting directly, you should also include a page or paragraph number, or a section title where page numbers are not available.
If you are paraphrasing (or putting someone else's idea into your own words), you still have to cite!
If you would like to print out the full Citation Guide, please feel free to use this PDF version: